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The migration of big systems is a tremendous task, but technologies around the world are making it easy for businesses. Mainframe computers are an example of such heavy migration and what makes them worthy is the language on which they run. IBM AS400/i-series has offered COBOL on many platforms since its inception and still doing so. COBOL was introduced in 1959, and after its normalization so many years down the line, it is serving as the backbone of various mainframe systems. COBOL stands for “Common Business-Oriented Language” and had been mainly used by Defence Department. As a result of this, the language started gaining popularity, and nowadays, it has been adopted by various other private and government industry sectors.

Although, with innovation in technology, the fundamental architecture of AS400 COBOL has become outdated, which limited its ability to make use of necessary innovations. But still, AS400 COBOL is widely used for applications development on mainframe computers.

However, several factors are responsible for the steady downfall of COBOL. These factors include – Rise of cloud technology, the retirement of experience AS400 COBOL developers. Still, many DOD systems and other private systems run on this platform, but they lack the flexibility and other advanced features available on most recent language platforms.

So, from a technical point of view, AS400 COBOL is unsuited to advanced OS commonly used in today’s cloud environment.

As a result of COBOL’s limited functionality, IBM AS400 iSeries modernized and transitioned the mainframe system to a Java-based AWS cloud setup. However, the strategies developed applied to Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud, and major cloud service providers. These service providers will easily allow DOD to migrate setup from COBOL to AS400 cloud and open barriers for them.

The Transformation of COBOL

When we talk about digital transformation, this is the right time, and let us tell you why?

COBOL is one of the oldest languages available for IBM iSeries AS400 developers, and primarily all mainframe implementations run on AS400 COBOL.

Unfortunately, most of the IT professionals and technical experts who know the functioning of COBOL are on the verge of retirement. Moreover, very few developers are interested to learn COBOL or learn working on mainframes.

So, How Popular is COBOL?

On an estimate, over 200 billion lines of COBOL codes are running on mainframes. These numbers are proof of how deeply the language is rooted in business systems developed over the decade. Furthermore, enormous business risks are common especially when someone tries to deploy them on the cloud. Also, moving COBOL to AS400 CLOUD is faster, easier, and the best decision.

And, if you put the digital transformation of AS400 COBOL on hold a few years later, you won’t be able to find skilled developers to work on the existing setup. And to be honest, your risk won’t be limited to locating source code or accessing applications. But tasks like troubleshooting, replacing the mainframe system would be impossible in the long term. Also, the cost of the operations will increase with time.

However, modernization is not the critical goal of DOD, i.e., they don’t want AS400/iSeries COBOL migration to have a shiny system on board; their only goal is to increase the system’s overall effectiveness. The old system lacked various modern features like reliability, scalability, and many more modern services.

Modernization Process

The project needed an extensive modernization process that can be completed in an affordable hosting environment, low data loss, minimal downtime, and minimal risk of security threats.

The process began by identifying and assessing different arrangements made for meeting the end goal. There was various option included in the process:

Option A:

In this option, all the codes and manuals needed to be re-written. But the process was going to take lots of time and involves a high risk of failure. Also, it was increasing costing.

Option B:

In this option, the plan was to replace the inside and outside security framework, but this was clashing with Defence rule manuals, so it was dismissed.

Finally, a COBOL emulator arrangement was considered as a makeshift measure, and IBM has chosen a COBOL-to-Java code mechanism to carry out the process:

Phase One

included automated code conversion using COBOL-to-Java refactoring to run on an Intel x86 platform.

Phase Two:

The second phase was intended to refactor the Java code to remove any remaining fragments of COBOL and enhance maintenance.

Phase Three:

All the remaining infrastructure was migrated to the AS400 cloud in the third phase. The cloud service also enhanced DOD’s stringent cybersecurity requirements.

The most important thing was to address the primary guard’s difficulties and deliver data whenever needed. There were many more things included, like:

  • Reduction of security risks and technical debt
  • Cost-saving due to low hosting expenses
  • Ability to incorporate new application functionality such as AI and ML
  • The preservation of DOD’s business logic and use of AS400 COBOL cloud services
  • Enabling the transition towards an Agile DevSecOps approach to managing system

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Well, to clear your confusion and help you select the best services, we have prepared this guide. After going through it, you will understand software outsourcing and why it’s beneficial for your business. Outsourcing can save a lot of resources, time, and opportunity costs of brainstorming new ideas.

Before moving to the benefits of outsourcing, let us start with some basic terms. Do you know what software outsourcing means?

Well, the term implies – that “when a business delegates its custom software development projects to another third-party company, it is known as outsourcing.”

Advantages of Custom Software Development Outsourcing

1- Skilled Workforce

Custom software development outsourcing gives the ability to an organization to gain access to highly skilled software professionals. Outsourcing simply means you are free to choose the best custom software development company from the market to fulfill your company’s needs. Workforce recruitment, training, and upscaling a difficult tasks, and by merely outsourcing your needs, you will be able to find the best developers and designers.

2- Emphasizing Core Business

R&D is the core of many business work models. As we are in a highly advanced tech era, companies should focus on strengthening their core business strategies. It can be difficult for many organizations to manage both internal business operations and software development. Outsourcing your requirements to third-party custom software development companies can be an excellent way for organizations to emphasize their core business.

3- Cost Saver

Outsourcing your custom software development requirements is an excellent way for organizations to reduce business operations costs. An outsourcing company may be located in another part of the world, but they will get your work done at a reduced price without compromising quality. Organizations cutting their costs in half is one of the most significant benefits of custom software development outsourcing.

4- Reduce Time to Market

In business, time is money. More than 94% of companies use outsourcing in their various business operations.

Also, in-house software development can be delayed due to various reasons, and this delay can result in lost business productivity. Custom software development outsourcing will help you effectively reduce the product’s time to market. The software development company will accelerate your project as per requirement and assign the tasks to highly experienced developers.

5- Minimize Business Risk

When you have lots of internal business projects going on, it’s not a good idea to scarifying quality and productivity. By outsourcing your requirements to custom software development companies, you can effectively reduce the risk you take on your own company.

Models of Custom Software Development Outsourcing

1- Location-based Models

– Onsite / Onshore

– Nearshore

– Offshore

2- Relationship-based Models

– Staff Augmentation

– Managed & Dedicated Team

– Project-based

3- Contract-based Models

– Time & Material

– Fixed Price

1- Growth of AI

Computers around the globe are getting digitized and smart. Advanced AI trends in the computing world have allowed computers to think about themselves. According to some research around the world, 8 out of 10 companies are investing in artificial intelligence. Furthermore, artificial intelligence has scope in the field of custom software development also. With AI technology, developers can make modern and unique websites or applications and convert ideas into reality. Today, the AI algorithm in software ensures your groceries are delivered to your doorstep, and even drive your car without human intervention.

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Every RPG programming and development services provider must have been familiar with SEU. Although it was introduced around fifty years ago, but it was the standard code editor for IBM AS400 and iSeries.

In 2008, with the launch of IBM i V6.1 in a significant OS upgrade process, IBM announced to withdraw the support for old SEU. This move was intended because IBM wanted people to adopt their flagship code editor, i.e., RDi. But SEU has not ended completely, it is still in use, it’s just that updates are longer available for the same. For more than a decade, SEU syntax checking was part of IBM V6, and now it is a nightmare to write new IBMi codes on SEU, as it counts the latest features as an error.

IBM RDi is also a code editor for RPG developers. Earlier, RD was known as WDSC (WebSphere Development Studio Client), but after the complete revamping of IDE, it was re-branded by the name of RDi. If you are not using IDE code editor for RPG programming, your RPG developers are probably stuck with years-old text-based code editors. In this modern era, it’s time for you to make a switch to modern code editing software.


IBM SEU (Source Entry Utility)

The STRSEU command is used to create, display, change or print a member. Also, IBM SEU is a part of the RDi licensed program.

If you use SEU to enter the source in a database file, it will add the sequence number and data field to every record. Also, you can edit or delete that record anytime.

Let’s understand this with an example – Suppose you are adding a source record between 0002.00 and 0003.00, then the record sequence will be 0002.01. SEU will automatically make entries for the newly added records. Sadly, IBMi ended all the enhancement of SEU with IBM I v6.1. But still, it’s commonly used by various IBMi service providing companies.


IBM Rational Developer for IBMi

Rational Developer for IBMi or RDi is the official tool for RPG development. It’s a good tool, but very expensive and very extensive. IBM rational developers is IBM’s code editor used in the software development process. It provides an integrated development environment (IDE) to develop, maintain, and modernize IBM iSeries software. It is integrated with development tools, like – search, built, edit, and code debugging. RDi is built on the Eclipse framework and offers faster and easier application development.

IBM continuously releases the RPG programming language enhancement, so rational developers is the only tool that can allow RPG developers to stay updated with IBMi Services syntax changes and enable rapid code development.

Visual Studio Code

VS Code is fast and lightweight. It feels like NOTEPAD++ on steroids. It’s free, open-source, and comes with multi-OS compatibility. Through its plugin, you can work on various languages within the same IDE. Most importantly, all the major programming languages are supported by VS Code. It supports – RPGLE, SQL, PHP, Python, HTML, JavaScript, C++, and many more. Visual Studio Code also has a complete Git Integration.

The popularity of Visual Studio Code is increasing rapidly, but it is not limited to IFS. Its plugins can enhance the code capabilities and allow access to native IBM iSeries RPG web services and the database structure of LIBS and files. At Integrative Systems, we can integrate several RPG plugins.

Visual Studio Code (IBM iSeries Language Syntax Checking Plugin)

This is a decent plugin for highlighting languages like RPG, MI, RPGLE, CL, and DDS.

NOTE: This plugin was separated from RPG Language Plugin

Visual Studio Code – Plugin for RPG Language

This plugin offers RPG source highlighting and ILE syntax checking for free if you have RPG version 7.1 and above.

ILEDITOR 2 – Code for IBMi

This is the best IBM iSeries software development plugin. With this code from Visual Studio, you will be able to manage your RPGLE, COBOL, CL, and C/CPP. It comes with various excellent features like:

  • Object Browser
  • IFS Browser
  • Errors are shown up automatically
  • Member browser and Editor
  • Easy Settings

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The resurgence of COBOL is of no surprise. Expanded as Common Business Oriented Language, COBOL might not even feature in the university curriculum, and that’s why there are fewer COBOL developers. But the matter is that this programming language is used by legacy systems on which the world still depends, for their day-to-day transactions. Almost 70 to 80 percent of worldwide present-day business transactions are done on IBM iSeries. A 2017 research study uncovered billions of lines of COBOL codes, which are still in use today.

But there is a gap that needs to be bridged. Legacy AS/400 systems that run COBOL applications need COBOL developers. for regular maintenance and new application development. Existing legacy server infrastructures that run on AS/400 are irreplaceable. Government institutions, large banks, public services companies, insurance companies, etc. – all of them are unwilling to stop AS/400 systems and upgrade to the newer IBM Power Systems.

Their argument is simple – when something is running super-fine, why change just for the sake of change?

Why cannot COBOL be Replaced?

AS/400 COBOL applications are used all over the world, and there is always a need for COBOL developers. Considering that more than 100,000 AS/400 customers exist, one can imagine the enormity of COBOL application deployments and the increasing need for COBOL developers.

  • More than 60 million patients are treated and cared for with applications developed on AS/400 COBOL apps. Thanks to the efforts of the COBOL programmer.
  • Most ATM transactions, at least 90% of them are powered by COBOL application.
  • Every year, almost 96% of vacations are booked using systems built on COBOL developers of all ages.
  • Social Security Administration has more than 60 million lines of code written in COBOL.
  • IRS uses COBOL applications; about 50 million lines of COBOL code are used at this single entity.

Has Something Better Come Along?

The answer is – that it is not required. For so many business applications, COBOL has been a rock-solid foundation. COBOL applications haven’t broken, are resilient, and secure. So, the need to replace it does not arise because if a system is working fine, then there is no need to tinker with it. Another point of consideration is that COBOL has explicitly been designed for business applications. Other low-level programming languages such as Fortran and LISP are better suited to solve scientific problems and create artificial intelligence applications.

Grace Hopper’s Graceful Language Has Come a Long Way

At the beginning of the computer age, banks, government organizations, and insurance companies started creating machine-specific programming languages with the help of COBOL developers. Due to the high cost and time involved in running and maintaining these applications, a universal solution was needed in place. And Grace Hopper was instrumental in bridging, this gap by creating COBOL. The programming language was universal and capable to run on all business systems.

COBOL’s syntax is an output of Grace’s reasoning that the syntax of programming languages should be close to spoken languages. That’s why COBOL syntax was considered a wordy one by COBOL developers. The era of verbose English-like programming languages has dawned again, starting with Python. Grace’s reasoning of yore is now very relevant because the humanization of computing increases the possibilities of unlimited programmatic expressions.


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The IBM iSeries cloud is one of the most common and easily understandable technologies in the business world. Today, many companies are moving towards cloud solutions, but the big question arises: Why? What is the big deal? Or at what cost are they moving? Why is a cloud solution so important?

You must be having a similar question about IBM iSeries cloud services. Just go through the blog, and you will get to know about the deal.

What Has Changed Now?

Cloud computing service utilizes the internet’s power to give ultimate data accessibility and flexible storage facility to companies. The large organizations have been taking advantage of IBM iSeries cloud services for years, and now the small and medium companies have got on board.

According to Gartner – “Global organizations refer to cost, innovation, and agility as some of the top reasons for making a switch to the IBM iSeries cloud platform.”

They no longer need to deal with the complicated data storage management system by moving to the automated cloud platform. As an alternative to this, enterprises gain the proficiency of the iSeries cloud and simplified and centralized data management.

IBM iSeries cloud solution is a complete game-changer as traditional tape storage is becoming less effective (in terms of primary backup strategy), and generally, it is used for long-term data maintenance or in legal proprietary issues. Moreover, disaster recovery and data storage plans are rarely left for traditional mediums.

No matter what, today’s data recovery and backup plans include IBM AS400 cloud solutions to some extent, whether alone or in combination.

The Challenges Companies Forget About

The IBM iSeries cloud migration might seem an ideal solution to you, but there are lots of challenges that most companies are not aware of. Have a look here:

  • Users are not aware of the storage location of their data
  • Users don’t know who exactly has the access to their data
  • How do migrate data to the cloud from legacy systems?
  • How do establish a reliable network and send data?

These challenges boil down to the difference between public, and private cloud solution providers. Public cloud solutions may be cheaper but can’t guarantee company data security; that’s why companies opt for private IBM iSeries cloud providers.

1. Migrating is not Worth the Risk

Due to this strong misconception, some companies are not able to integrate cloud services. Well, without any doubt, migration requires strong efforts, and if you are working with older servers, you will need more steps. But get going with a trusted and experienced IBM iSeries cloud service provider, and the migration process will be easy.

2. The IBM iSeries Cloud Is Too Expensive

If you feel this is true, you must not be seeing a flood of companies migrating to the iSeries cloud. Uncountable companies are moving towards the cloud and saving lots of money because of this. Cloud hosting services increase business efficiency, agility, and adaptability as per market needs. Also, another important aspect is that the need to maintain on-prem servers gets removed.

3. Administrators will Be Replaced by the Cloud

The IBM iSeries cloud provides automation to a certain degree, and it does not mean that your data will not require manual support. The cloud solution is just like a service, and administration and management are entirely different issues. For example, if you benefit from the private cloud service provider, you can get services like customized backup, data archiving facility, disaster recovery, and management for securing the application access, but managing all this would still need some level of manual intervention. So, administrators would still be required in their jobs.

4. The Cloud Must Be Close to Be Efficient

This myth seems legit, but the myth becomes irrelevant if you have the right networking solution.

Well, it is right that you must have a clear connection between your primary location and host location, as you cannot neglect the importance of bandwidth and data transfer speed. However, with the right IBM iSeries cloud service provider, all such issues will be eliminated.

5. IBM AS400 iSeries Cloud Hosting Gives Less Control to Companies

With the IBM iSeries cloud solution, you could gain more control over your IBM AS400 system than earlier you had in-house. Moreover, you will get the support of your cloud service provider, and you will be able to customize your cloud processing power and storage capabilities as per your requirements. Apart from this, you will be able to optimize your iSeries cloud solution concerning disaster recovery, customized backup, and much more.

6. Cloud Computing Will Interfere with Regulatory Compliance

Cloud computing can in fact help you meet regulatory compliance, but there is another case where the public vs. private cloud distinction makes all the difference.

The most important concern for the agreement is knowing where your data is stored and who has access to that data. If your organization is audited, it will be necessary to provide exact data location, but you can deny answering the questions in the case of the public cloud.

The organizations for whom it’s necessary to meet regulatory compliance, the IBM iSeries cloud services offer an enhanced level of security and control levels.


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The JDA group offers a Merchandise Management System (MMS) to enable retailers to respond to sudden market shifts and meet customer expectations quickly. The application runs of IBMi (AS/400 or iSeries). The application is used by thousands of retailers worldwide to increase sales, improve profit margins, and increase overall efficiency. The software has powerful capabilities that enable it to handle challenging business operations like inventory control, allocation, vendor management, customer orders, and more. Furthermore, the JDA MMS comes with various applications that can help e-commerce retailers in their business. Let’s have a look at the blog for a better understanding. 

JDA software group is the global leader in helping manufacturers, retailers, and wholesale distributors in more than 60 countries. On average, the JDA group helps around 5,500 retailers by advancing their JDA portfolios and simplifying their supply-demand solutions. The merchandise management system is widely used and well known among industries for its stability, built-in capabilities, and its promotion features. Furthermore, the software is also known for its ability to simulate pricing strategies and make the right pricing decisions before implementation. 

JDA MMS was originally developed in 1988 for System/38, and it is written in RPG ILE language. Also, the data warehouse is the must-have technology for the merchandise management system.

The JDA MMS Application Suite Includes:

  • Inventory Control & Procurement
  • Buyer’s Workbench
  • Vendor Management
  • Price Management
  • Financial Control
  • Distribution Centre Management
  • Merchandise Receiving, Allocation & Replenishment
  • Promotional Management

Inventory Control & Procurement

The inventory control & procurement process includes purchasing & inventory management. The module is also used to perform necessary allocation and create purchase orders in the inventory. JDA MMS makes broad use of inventory transactions, and every activity can be monitored closely. 

Purchase order pickups from single or multiple locations can be scheduled in advance. Moreover, it supports physical inventory count in stores.

Stock balances can be monitored with JDA MMS, and specific transactions like stock balancing, managing promotional pricing, order creation, and many more tasks can be done through MMS. Apart from this, flash sales reporting and other 20+ categories can be managed online through JDA.

Buyer’s Workbench

The Buyer’s Workbench is also a JDA MMS module that includes a series of functions to address the purchasing and receiving related tasks. The process consists of color and size checks of the material, pre-packs, material received, item maintenance, and SKUs.

The physical stores and distribution centres support the free movement of merchandise between locations.

The merchandise management system tracks sales and inventory by color, size, and dimension. Moreover, these can be analyzed in aggregate or individually.

Vendor Management

The vendor management module in JDA MMS is used to maintain vendors as a part of the account payable process. Furthermore, the module supports an advanced level of allowances and rebates to assist in miscellaneous costing management, such as freight.

Vendor compliance and receipts are checked and tracked for damages, and the process also includes invoice matching.

Price Management

The merchandise management system includes cost management policies, and it works parallel with other modules. Companies host events to update the regular price at POS and track mark-ups throughout the course. The price of an item can be managed at stores or warehouses or at a zonal level.

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With yearly profitability of one billion USD, the JDA system has been a top global supply chain provider for the past three decades. It enables businesses to increase their potential to streamline, implement, and carry out their merchandise management better. It does so via forecasting and shaping demand, executing orders more effectively and efficiently, and enhancing customer experiences and engagement. Let’s understand what exactly JDA system is and how it can streamline your workflow processes with its robust features and remarkable benefits.

What Is JDA Merchandise Management System?

JDA merchandise management system is a complex, real-time merchandise management software that expertly manages real-world breakdowns. It does so to help boost the overall performance and increase the competitive edge. This system enables businesses to survive in an ever-changing environment that is hyper-connected and omnichannel.

JDA support does so by giving companies the ability to quickly respond to changes, optimize, and execute the appropriate inventory in the right place and at the right time. Users of JDA support gain greater flexibility, real-time response, and the ability to handle complicated merchandise operations more effectively.

The merchandise management system offers a centralized tower for each job, resulting in a compelling user experience. This enables users to deal with the most important issues in real-time while still keeping tabs on their day-to-day operations, resulting in optimum user productivity.

Role-based flexibility ensures that users may respond to business demands in and out of the facility without being tied to a workstation or RF device. This powerful technology also features in-store selecting and dark-store functionalities for managing retail e-commerce merchandise management operations successfully.

This improves the omnichannel experience for shoppers and enables the to buy anywhere, fulfill anywhere, and return anywhere structure that retail customers expect.

Features of JDA System Software

Here are some of the fundamental functionalities that are included in the suite of JDA system software:

Inventory Control and Procurement

This function comprises purchasing and inventory, generates purchase orders, performs basic distribution, and stores physical inventory.

The merchandise Management System (MMS) of the JDA system software extensively uses inventory transactions, and each operation can be thoroughly monitored or audited. It also supports physical inventory counts on a store basis, with each merchandise maintaining its own inventory function for cycle counts.

Purchase Orders can be pre-distributed (pre-allocated) or post-distributed for a single or several locations. Stock balances are sent into IDEAS and can be tracked from there. Certain transactions, such as inventory balancing, purchase order generation, promotional pricing, and action support, can be created and sent back to MMS.

There are over 30 different types of transactions. IDEAS also has a strong focus on sales and inventory analysis. MMS feeds more than 20 categories (datamarts) in addition to flash sales reporting.

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The good news is that the AS400 platform is extremely secure, making it an excellent solution for protecting essential business operations and corporate data assets. However, some iSeries system administrators believe it is inherently protected and does not require any additional security measures. If you are one such administrator and believe it too, then you could be slightly wrong.

 It is crucial to assess what is running in your system now and implement the necessary controls to ensure that all IBMi processes are completely secure. The security measures are, of course, there! All that you need to do is evaluate the common grounds of risk and implement the necessary updates to avoid infiltration and malicious behavior in the workplace. Let’s go through the top 10 security risks concerning an iSeries system administrator and learn how to tackle them effectively.

10 Security Risks for iSeries System Administrator and Ways to Avoid Them

Here’s a listicle of ten AS400/iSeries risks and how to thwart them:

Too Many AS400 Operator/Admin Users

Almost all iSeries systems have too many users with far more authority than they require. In fact, many organizations grant access to all database files and objects on the AS400 operator system to an overwhelming number of user profiles. This means that there is nothing to prevent employees from accessing and sharing unauthorized data or wiping the entire operating system. 

Solution: Make the effort to evaluate user profiles and their activities on a routine basis. Standardize role-based authorization, keep track of who has access, and keep an eye out for employees who gain access through unexpected means.

Allowing Default AS400/iSeries Passwords

Users frequently keep passwords that match their usernames, which is a big mistake. As you must know, hackers will always try to utilize login credentials where the username and password match or it is easier for them to guess. 

This aids them in testing if they can obtain access to the system, and they frequently succeed in doing so. This puts your entire iSeries system at risk of being exploited or having all important and confidential data wiped away. 

Solution: User authorization during hiring and training is mandatory to solve this. Ongoing compliance monitoring will also aid in the creation of reports to determine how many profile users have default passwords and to seek suitable password settings.

Ignoring Compliance Mandates

Some organizations might not even understand how to properly install security measures to meet their applicable mandates. In fact, they might fail to properly implement the tools or controls required to achieve the standards. 

Postponing the task entails risking penalties or hoping auditors would not detect any problems. It is highly possible that an auditor will not realize IBMi lacks virus protection since they do not grasp how the platform works, offering administrators an ‘escape.’ 

Solution: It is imperative to conduct research on the specific requirements that your organization must meet. At that time, you can use the appropriate software or other procedures to guarantee you are doing everything possible to comply fully with these guidelines and safeguard your data.

Running on an Unsupported Version of IBMi

As with any operating system, not running the most recent version can cause issues, especially if you are running on a version that the vendor company no longer supports.

Having an outdated version of the AS400/iSeries means you might not have the most recent upgrades for your security tools and could be vulnerable due to a lack of security patches. Furthermore, if your version is too old, you might not be able to get help from IBM. 

Relying on Menu Security

The green screen’s menu security provides each user with unique options based on their position. However, there is nothing in the system to control because these are the only places a user can access. Experienced users can easily go to areas beyond the menu options. These entry points allow a user to bypass the menu options that are initially displayed.


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Is your company lagging compared to its competitors because of your currently employed legacy software? 

If yes, here’s the truth bomb: You are not alone in this! Legacy software applications are at the foundation of many top-tiered organizations. They have software applications and IT capabilities that are still widely used and crucial to the entire operation of the business. They are, however, out of date and, in several cases, no longer supported by the original vendor company or program developer. While running legacy applications might not appear like a huge deal, they do, however, present several unique challenges and potential risks that organizations would be negligent, if underestimating.

What Are the Bottlenecks of Legacy Software?

Here are some of the major bottlenecks of legacy software that companies need to be cautious about:

 Security is a Major Challenge

To begin with, legacy software systems frequently pose a significant security risk. This is because they are undoubtedly old and, in some cases, are no longer supported by the developer or software application development company that built them.

The complexity with outdated systems, such as legacy software, is that they are not maintained or patched to tackle security breaches. Consequently, you could end up jeopardizing your entire network’s security solely because you are operating an outdated software system that is no longer supported.

No/Less Compatibility with New Technologies

Many legacy software systems functioned independently and were never intended to work with other software integrations. While this may have been feasible in the past, it now severely limits your company’s performance and adaptability, as well as the integrations, it can accomplish.

If you want to take advantage of new technological solutions and all the benefits they offer, you should consider having your legacy systems modernized or rewritten. Modernization will enable them to integrate with the best custom software solutions your company would build.

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“AS400” and “green screen” have become synonyms now, and you will get various articles and blogs out there describing the platform – but none of them paint a simple and easy-to-remember picture for the audience. All the information about AS400 is very disorganized and hence difficult to consume or comprehend for a non-technical business reader.

 In this blog, we have deeply analyzed the IBM AS400, i.e., apart from its “green screen” identity, and brought together a lot of different pieces of information on AS400 – so that when you finish reading this blog – you leave better informed. Also, the blog is written by keeping CIOs, CEOs, CTOs, IT developers, and vendors in mind, who think of it still being a green screen software. This single thought has wasted millions of dollars on failed projects, and to some people, has cost their job.

 What Actually AS400 is?

IBM AS400 or IBM iSeries or IBMi is an application server used by large organizations because of its proven scalability, security, robustness, and low cost of ownership (TCO – Total cost of ownership) compared to IBM mainframe (IBM z) Every company that used AS400 wants to reap the benefits of its large volume data storage capacity and valuable information stored in it. Also, the introduction of new technologies forces companies to modernize AS400 systems and harness more excellent value. However, due to some limitations, companies face more significant challenges to update the AS400 systems. 

But in the case of AS/400 systems, IBM does not charge customers based on transactions, i.e. (MIPS – Million Instructions per Second), instead it is a sunk cost. In simple words, it’s not that difficult or expensive to modernize the AS400 systems, and the updated version will deliver benefits like – reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), transparency in hidden data, and increased system responsiveness while delivering enduring business value. The footprints of AS400 are extensive in the IT landscape. Several technologies and supporting software are involved in the process; a one-stop solution provider for AS400 modernization is likely to succeed. 

History of the IBM AS/400

Three decades is a very long time for technology to stay in this competitive world.

The year 1988 was significant in terms of technology when IBM launched AS400 and they have not looked back. AS400 or Application System 400 is very popular among companies that require robustness and scalability on their part. The operating system of AS400 is known by various names like iSeries, OS/400, etc. Like everyone else, we like the original name because it shows what is unique in the system. And, that specialty is –The OS is application-centric and not processor centric. 

In 1979, there was a minicomputer launched by IBM, and they named it System/38. This was for business and departmental use and launched as a complete product line. Different architectures of System/38 were: System/3, System/32, System/34, and System/36. After the launch of this, IBM realized that for thousands of programs written in legacy code, compatibility is the key for uncountable programs developed on legacy code. They released AS400 in 1988. The AS/400 is equipped with a legacy OS: Operating system 400, that enabled the programs written for the older system (System/34 and 36) to move to AS400. 

In the year 2000, the AS400 was named the IBM iSeries. And again, in the year 2006, it was renamed as IBM system i. Furthermore, two years later (2008), the Systemi and p product lines were combined, and now the new product line is known as IBM power systems. Moreover, the operating system was renamed from OS400 to i5/OS and finally to IBM i.


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